8. Word lists

Instead of one general wordlist containing all words I have decided to publish specific wordlists. The different lists have all their own source material and logic so it is more convenient this way. And I can just add a new list when it is done.

The Black Speech word list

This is the Zhâburi interpretation of the known Black Speech words. The list also contains some Orcish words, mainly from the Orc curse. See also Analysis of the Black Speech.

BS=Black Speech
DBS=Debased Black Speech/Orcish
Con.=constructed or analysed
RI=Ring inscription
OC=Orc curse
LotR=Lord of the Rings
WJ=War of Jewels

Black Speech Meaning Type Comment, Zhâburi Source
-a- Formant of transitive verbs inf Verb suffix T, BS, RI
-hai Attached postposition indicating association, membership or part of something suf Hurrian -(h)he T, BS, LotR
-ishi in; locative case ending or attached postposition suf Quenya-ssë, locative ending. Analysed as -locative –shi; and article -i. T, BS, RI
-m formant of infinitive and nominalization suf Verb suffix T, BS, RI
-t formant of 3 person intended future in verbal form suf Verb suffix T, BS, RI
-u- Formant of intransitive verbs inf Verb suffix T, BS, RI
-ûk Syntactic particle indicating completeness suf Verb suffix T, BS, RI
-ul it, he, she; him, her; they; them suf 3 person personal pronoun, enclitic: object of action in transitive verbal forms; subject of action in intransitive verbs T, BS, RI
agh and con T, BS, RI
ash one num Hurrian še, Nermovsky’s analysis T, BS, RI
burz- to be dark v verb stem; Quenya morë; Primitive Elvish mori “dark(ness)”, mornâ “dark” T, BS, RI
durb- to rule v verb stem; Quenya tur-“to rule” T, BS, RI
ghâsh fire n noun; could it be related to   Valarin igas “heat” as (a)naškad “ring”? T, BS, LotR
gimb- to find v verb stem T, BS, RI
gûl wraith (of Sauron), “any one of the major invisible servants of Sauron dominated entirely by his will”; Someone with deep knowledge of Eä from the dark perspective n Primitive Elvish ñgôlê “Science/Philosophy”, elvish word stem NGOL “wise” or “wisdom”; Sindarin gûl “deep knowledge; perverted or evil knowledge, sorcery, necromancy, black arts, magic” T, BS, LotR
krimp- To bind v Verb stem T, BS, RI
ku old n sharkû “old man”; –ku (with lengthened vowel when suffixed to a noun T, BS, LotR
nazg ring n Noun; Valarin (a)naškad “ring” T, BS, RI
nazgûl Ringwraith n nazg “ring”; gûl “wraith” T, BS, LotR
olog troll n noun, analysed as stem LOG with duplication of the stem vowel as a prefix T, BS, LotR
shar- man n sharkû “old man” T, BS, LotR
sharkû old man n shar “man”; kû “old” T, BS, LotR
thrak- to bring v verb stem T, BS, RI
uruk orc n Noun, Both orcs in general but especially larger orcs capable of dominating other orcs, indicate relative status. analysed as stem RUK with duplication of the stem vowel as a prefix T, BS, LotR
u to prep preposition T, DBS, OC; Orcish
bagronk dung-pit n compond noun bag “dung”; ronk “pit” T, DBS, OC; Orcish
sha with prep preposition T, DBS, OC; Orcish
pushdug stinking v push+dug; push “stench”; –dug descriptive suffix, active T, DBS, OC; Orcish
glob filth n noun T, DBS, OC; Orcish
búbhosh Pig-guts; n compond noun búb “pig”; hosh “guts”; bûbhosh with BS-spelling T, DBS, OC; Orcish
skai inerjection “gah” int T, DBS, OC; Orcish
bag dung n isolated from bagronk “dungpit” T, DBS, OC; Orcish
ronk pit n isolated from bagronk “dungpit” T, DBS, OC; Orcish
push stench n isolated from pushdug “stinking” T, DBS, OC; Orcish
-dug descreptive ending, active suf isolated from pushdug “stinking” T, DBS, OC; Orcish
búb pig n isolated from búbhosh “pig-guts”; bûb with BS-spelling T, DBS, OC; Orcish
hosh guts n isolated from búbhosh “pig-guts” T, DBS, OC; Orcish
Dushgoi Sorcery city n Minas Morgul T, DBS, WJ, Orcish
dush n isolated from Dushgoi “Minas Morgul”; Valarin dušamanûðân “marred” T, BS, WJ; con
goi town, city, adminstrative center n A Mordorian City is a administrative center T, BS, WJ; con
ugl- frighten; fear v verb: uglu– “to fear”; ugla– “to frighten”; from Hurrian ugl– “fear” and orc name “Uglúk Nerimovsky; con
snaga slave, servant n snag+a; -a agent suffix from Westron? T, DBS, OC; Orcish
snag- root for slave servant “snaga” n isolated from snaga “slave” if -a is a agent suffix borrowed from Westron BA, DBS, LotR; con
-a agent suffix suf isolated from snaga “slave”, -a is a agent suffix borrowed from Westron BA, DBS, LotR; con
bur- blinding v Isolated from burz– after Nerimosky’s analysis BA, con RV; con
gûldur sorcery n Sindarin guldur “black arts, sorcery”. See  gûl. T.

Names of Ainur – Azhan

Some of the names of Valar have Valarin forms and these are used for the Zhâburi form. The other names are just adapted from the Elvish names with the exeption of Melkor and Eru. Note that Zhâburi does not destinguish between higher Ainur such as Valar and Maiar nor Aratar – the higher Valar but instead all are included in ‘azhan’. If one wants to use these categories the Quenya words are used in the plural form (Zhâburi does not distinguish between singular and plural): Valar, Aratar;  Maiar (not *Mazhar). This is to mark out that these categories are part of another cosmological and philosophical paradigm.

The word ‘vala’ comes from the primitive elvish root BAL (Vala = Balan/Belain in Sindarin). In Quenya there is the word Máhan, a synonym for Aratar, adopted from Valarin ‘mâchanâz’ which becomes mâghan in Zhâburi but designate any high authority (of the Shadow) and not the Valar. Melkor is called Mâghanashi (the one authority) in Zhâburi (B). In Zhâburi (A) Eru was called Ashi (The One) but this is really just a translation from Quenya Eru with all its cosmological baggage. In Zhâburi (B) Eru is reduced by the name Manashi from a subject to an object with no agency; to a proto-substance with the potential of form. Thus the language indicates that Arda was formed by the Ainur (Azhani) led by Melkor, Mâghanashi, the supreme Ainu.

Names of Maiar not listed here are just changed according to the phonological restriction of Zhâburi (B). Often that means no change at all, e.g. Gandalf, Mithrandir, Saruman, Curunír > Kurunîr. But note the change of the sound value of r from dental to uvular and the change stops/plosives from unaspirated to aspirated.

Zhâburi English Comment
Aghûl Aulë From Valarin A3ûlêz
Arûn Melkor, Morgoth An Adûnaic name for Morgoth, perhaps coined by Sauron when he introduced the worship of the dark god to the Númenóreans, translated as “Lord” (Sauron Defeated: 376)
Arôm Oromë From Valarin Arômêz
Asat Este Phonetical adaption
Azhan Ainu, Ainur From Valarin ayanûz “ainu”
Irim Irmo Phonetical adaption
Mâghanashi, Mâgnashi Melkor, Morgoth The One Authority
mâghan authority From Valarin mâchanâz “authority”. Used for the high authority of the shadow like Sauron or Nazgûl or other. Mâghani “the authority” often means Sauron.
Manashi Eru The unique proto-form and substance “see ‘man’ under the Words from Valarin and ‘ashi’ individulizer
Mânav Manwë From Valarin Mânawenûz
Mâron Mairon (Sauron) Phonetical adaption
Nâm Mandos/Námo Phonetical adaption
Nas Nessa Phonetical adaption
Nîn Nienna Phonetical adaption
Tuluk Tulkas From Valarin Tulukastâz
Ulub Ulmo From Valarin Ulubôz
Vân Vána Phonetical adaption
Vâr Vaire Phonetical adaption
Varad Varda Phonetical adaption
Zhavan Yavanna Phonetical adaption

Words from Valarin

There is a theory that the BS word ‘nazg’ is taken from Valarin ‘naškad’ (ring) in ‘Mâchananaškad’ (Ring of Doom). A longer shot is that BS ‘ghâsh’(fire) is related to the Valarin ‘igas’ in ‘Aþâraigas’ (appointed heat). The problematic part of transferring words from Valarin to Zhâburi is the length of Valarin words which are mostly (all?) have several syllables and because many of them are compound words it’s difficult to decide where to cut them. On the other hand when Sauron took words from Valarin he most probably shortened them and fitted to phonetics of The Black Speech.

Zhâburi English Valarin
adal tree crown
Speculation, from Tulukhedelgorûs “Laurelin”
azhan ainu ayanûz “ainu”
dalgûm dome
delgûmâ “dome”
ghâsh fire igas “heat”?
grûsh fruit
Speculation, from Tulukhedelgorûs “Laurelin”
ibir; ibr(i)- silver
ibri “silver”, Ibrîniðilpathânezel “Telperion”
ibrinithpâzal Telperion Ibrîniðilpathânezel“Telperion”
kazh order, rule
akašân “he sais” with reference to Eru
khâr mound
ôchar “mound” from Ezellôchâr “green mound”
lût reflection
Phanaikelûth “bright mirror”
mâghal, mâghl- seat of power, capital
machallâm “throne”
mâghan, mâghn- authority mâchanâz
mân proto-form and substance; matter/substance without a designated form
from ‘dušamanûðân’ (marred) and ‘amanaišal’ (unmarred)
mirub, mirb- wine, mead mirubhôzê
naghar, naghr- horse Næchærra
nazg ring naškad
nidh flower
iniðil “flower”, Ibrîniðilpathânezel “Telperion”
palûn dwelling place for authorities
phelûn “dwelling place”
pan brigth
Phanaikelûth “bright mirror”
pâth leaf
Speculation, from Tulukhedelgorûs “Laurelin”
Rûzh the Sun ayanûz “ainu”
shabat air

šebeth “air”

thar appointed time, a place in time, hour igas “heat”?
tulkh yellow
Speculation, from Tulukhedelgorûs “Laurelin”
tulukh gold
ibri “silver”, Ibrîniðilpathânezel “Telperion”
Tulukhadalgrûsh Laurelin (Tulukhedelgorûs)
zal green
akašân “he sais” with reference to Eru
zhat hair
ôchar “mound” from Ezellôchâr “green mound”

Words from Adûnaic

Adûnaic is the languages of the men of Númenor. During the Second Age, when Sauron created The Black Speech, Númenor was a great kingdom and empire of mariners. There are not many known words of Adûnaic but I have taken a few of them. These mostly have to do with human families and the sea and statecraft. From Adûnaic Zhâburi gets some human elements which I think was necessary for the Black  Speech to have if it should be used in human societies. There are som words for animals as well which I have not decided if I want to use or not.

Zhâburi English Adûnaic
âm mother ammî, ammê
ân- human being (in compounds) anâ (neutral), anî (feminine), anû (masculine)
ânad human being ân + -ad (ZhB derevative suffix)
âtu father attû, attô
azar ocean azra
azgar war
azgarâ- (to wage war)
balak ship balak
banât wife banâth
batan paved road batan “road; path”
bavab to sail; sail bawâb “wind”
brot prow obroth
drôt wake of boat nadroth
kadar city; large human settlement; place of commerse kadar “city”
kal woman kali
karab, karb- war horse karab “horse”
magân ship wright wright
mîk baby baby boy
nitil girl nithil
nupâr parent nuphâr
pazân king’s son; prince phazân
rut foam ruth
sulum mast sulum
zadan palace zadan “house”
zâzhan kingdom; empire; reich zâyan “land”
zigûr wizard; Sauron?
particulary Sauron
zimir jewel zimra
zir desire; lust; greed love; desire
zôr to nurse zôrî


Most of these words are come from Svartiska or some other old dialect and just a few from other Tolkien languages. I imagine that the words that are not connected to primitive Elvish are words the orcs picked up early during the first or second age. Most probably from Easterlings or that they developed the words themselves during the millenia.

Ad = Adûnaic
Ety = Etymologies
Ho = Horngoth
LoS = Land of Shadows
OC = Orc Curse
PE = Primitive Elvish
Q = Quenya
Qe = Qenya
S = Sindarin
Sv = Svartiska

Zhâburi Svenska English Source
-bork djur, varelse animal Sv -bork
âlk svan swan PE álkwā
bâm bagge ram Q máma
bog geting wasp Sv thumbog
brap groda frog Sv blaplosh
brikalush älg elk, moose Sv brikalush
brish får sheep Sv bresh
brog råtta rat Sv brogatar
bruk björn bear PE morókō
bûb svin, gris pig, pork OC bûb
bûd tjur bull Q mundo; S mund (bull)
burk tjäder capercaillie PE porokē
dashk get goat PE najak
dolp räv fox Sv dolpan
dom uroxe, visent visent, auroch Sv dom
flôkh säl seal Sv floekh
gamp loppa flea PE kamprū
gâzhûp gam vulture Sv gâjûp
goltur vildsvin boar Sv goltur
gorka oxe ox Sv gorka
drak varg wolf Etym DARÁK
gurk kråka crow PE korka
huk kamphund attack dog Ho huk (dog)
kâl aborre perch PE skala
kalush sto, märr mare Sv kalush (horse)
kaprul rådjur roe deer Sv kaprul
karab stridshäst war horse Ad karab (horse)
kâtar ekorre squirrel Sv kautar
korskrig kackerlacka cockroach Sv korrskrigg
kûl trast thrush bird PE kholjē
kumâk uggla owl Sv kukumák
kumlush ko cow Sv kumlush
kunôl kanin rabbit Sv kunôl
kôrb skata magpie Sv kórrb
latag lo; stort kattdjur lynx; big cat Sv latagú
mîlom gås goose Sv mîlom (swan)
nadrô hjort deer Sv nadró
natûg hön hen Sv natûg
nukhur kryp bug, midge Sv nuchur
nûl humla bumblebee LoS nûlskoi
pan ål eel Sv pleshpan
pardrôg järv wolverine Sv pardrôg
pilk sparv sparrow Ety PHILIK (small bird)
plosh lus louse Sv plosh (flea)
plumûb duva dove Sv plumûb
poshak fisk fish Sv poshak
rakûn hök hawk Sv gîrakûn
rukh häst; hingst horse, stallion PE rokkō
sâkaft falk falcon Sv sâkaftor
shapân fågel bird Sv shapênd
shatarp krokodil crocodile Ho shatarpî (lizard)
shatûg tupp rooster Sv shatûg
shod gädda pike Sv plashodâr
skozh bi bee LoS nûlskoi
skrig myra ant Sv skrigg
sor korp raven Sv sorr (crow)
statûg kyckling chicken
Sv sta (small)+tûg (-hen/-rooster)
stâz odjur, best beast, monster Sv stâz
tûg hönsfågel hen, chicken, rooster Sv natûg; shatûg
tûr örn eagle PE thorono
ûg spindel spider PE uñg
urâk igelkott hedgehog Sv urauk
urâth mullvad mole Sv urauth
urzhat grävling badger Qe oryat
vog katt cat Sv vóglata
zhâd mus mouse PE nyadrō
zhâk orm snake, serpent PE lewek
zham djur animal PE lamā̆n(a); LAM
zhar hund dog PE yarr-
zhîg lax, röding salmon; char PE liñwi
zhup hare hare PE lopō
zlûk reptil, ödla reptile, lizard PE (s)lōkō (& reptile)
zom mask worm LoS zom