3. Pronouns

Personal pronouns

Cases
Person abs erg gen pos dir loc ins equ
1 person exkl. shid shigha shikhu shiba shiza shishi shizi shina
1 person incl. kad kagha kakhu kaba kaza kashi kazi kana
2. person lat lagha lakhu laba laza lashi lazi lana
3 person sul sulgha sulkhu sulbu sulza sulshi sulizh sulna

Enclitic personal pronouns
Marks the subject of intransitive verbs and the object of transitive verbs as in gimbatul “to find them”

Suffix English pronouns as subject of intransitive
as object of transitive
1 person excl. -ish I/me; we/us – but not you krimpugish “I bind myself”
gimabagishai “you find me”
1 person incl. -ak we/us – including you krimpugak “we bind ourself”
gimabagakai “you find us”
2. person -al you krimpugal “you bind yourself”
gimbagalai “I find you”
3 person -ul it; they/them krimpugul “they binde themselves”
gimbagulai ” you find them”

Enclitic possessive pronouns
Marks the owner of nouns

Person Suffix Example English
1 person excl. -bish ghâshbish my fire
1 person incl. -bak ghâshbak our fire
2. person -bal ghâshbal your fire
3 person -bul ghâshbul their fire

 

Advertisements