3. Pronouns

Under construction

Personal pronouns

Cases
Person abs erg gen pos dir loc ins equ
1 person exkl. shid shigha shikhu shiba shiza shishi shizhi shibi
1 person incl. kad kagha kakhu kaba kaza kashi kazhi kabi
2. person figha fikhu fiba fiza fishi fizhi fibi
3 person lub lugha lukhu luba luza lushi luzhi lubi

Enclitic personal pronouns
Marks the subject of intransitive verbs and the object of transitive verbs as in gimbatul “to find them”

Suffix English pronouns as subject of intransitive
as object of transitive
1 person exkl. -ish I/me; we/us – but not you krimpugish “I bind myself”
gimabagishai “you find me”
1 person incl. -ak we/us – including you krimpugak “we bind ourself”
gimabagakai “you find us”
2. person -if you krimpugif “you bind yourself”
gimbagifan “I find you”
3 person -ul it; they/them krimpugul “they binde themselves”
gimbagulai ” you find them”

Enclitic possessive pronouns
Marks the owner of nouns

Person Suffix Example English
1 person excl. -bish ghâshbish my fire
1 person incl. -bak ghâshbak our fire
2. person -biv ghâshbiv your fire
3 person -bul ghâshbul their fire

 

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