Zhâburi – A Black Speech of Mordor

One Speech to rule them all

The Ring verse in Zhâburi

Here is the whole Ring Verse in Zhâburi

* * *

Gakh nazg nût-shidizala golugoth-za
Udu gazatshakh-za gûd’hâd-bulshidiza
Krith fundadash-diza gûrum tarkgoth-za
Ash shakhbûrz-za sûl-bulshidiza
Al burghi gâtugulûk Dûrbûrz-ishi

Ash nazg durbatulûk
Ash nazg gimbatul
Ash nazg thrakatulûk
agh burzum-ishi krimpatul
Al burghi gâtugulûk Dûrbûrz-ishi

* * *

Three Rings for the Elven-kings under the sky,
Seven for the Dwarf-lords in their halls of stone,
Nine for Mortal Men doomed to die,
One for the Dark Lord on his dark throne
In the Land of Mordor where the Shadows lie

One Ring to rule them all,
One Ring to find them,
One Ring to bring them all,
and in the darkness bind them,
In the Land of Mordor where the Shadows lie

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Changes: pronouns, the directive and words from Valarin

In true to Tolkien I cannot settle on details of the language. I have decided to change the directive suffix and the some of the pronouns. The pronouns of Zhâburi B has never been stable but I hope that the latest version will hold. For the first time in my work with Zhâburi I am content with every pronoun. For a long time I struggled with the 3 person which I wanted to contain the element of u and l because of the -ul-parts in the Ring inscription. In Zhâburi A 3 person was based on luzh and now I have settled at last on sul. But instead the 2 person has given med problems but now I discard inspired by Hurrian and settle for lat which the 2 person singular in all other dialects except David Salo’s. I also settled for a very conform structure for the different case forms where each pronoun has a basic stem CV; the ergative has an ending consonant and for the other cases the case suffix is simply attached to the basic stem.

Person abs erg gen pos dir loc ins equ
1 person excl. shid shigha shikhu shiba shiza shishi shizi shana
1 person incl. kad kagha kakhu kaba kaza kashi kazi kana
2. person lat lagha lakhu labu laza lashi lazi lana
3 person sul sulgha sulkhu sulba sulza sulshi sulzi sulna

I have also changed the directive from –bi to –na. I was not really happy with the suffix -bi (taken from Elvish). The replacing ending is taken from Hurrian –nna.

I am also planning on publishing a wordlist of the Zhâburi words taken from Valarin.

Changing the tense suffixes

When writing the Gilgamish (see last post) I started to realize that there are really alot of fricative sounds. That’s not surprising given that the language has a lot of them. But I’m thinking of ways to reduce them. One way is to limit fricatives in grammatical affixes. The tenses has two fricatives, past tense -sh and future tense -z (present tense is -g).

I am also thinking that it could be nice to align Zhâburi to either Svartiska or LoS. So now think I will change the future tense -z to -b which corresponds to both Svartiska and LoS -ub (that would be the intransitive future in Zhâburi) and let the -z suffix mark past tense corresponding to LoS past tense -uz. I could use the Svartiska ending -(u)l but that would coincide whith the third person marker -ul.

That would give us:

past tense: -sh > -z
present tense: -g (no change)
future tense: -z > -b

Or maybe I just change the future tense to -b. I kind of like the past tense -sh.

Here are the published Gilgamish lines with -z as past tense suffix

  1. Lubashi-gha narz dubi, dalab gav-khu, ganazanûk
  2. Guzhubadazanûk, ishazanûk
    Gilgamish-gha narz dubi, dalab gav-khu, ganazanûk
    Guzhubadazanûk, ishazanûk
  3. Fushazanûk ruk kând Bârad-khu
  4. Khutazanûk gûludûk shû-khu
  5. Ganazan dhûri, badzazan buzhi
  6. Ruzhazan zhabazhi zhûsh-ikhu shub-ishibû bâradbâ-iza

Gilgamish

I have started to work on a Zhâburi version of the Epic of Gilgamesh, or Gilgamish as it is rendered in Zhâburi.

  1. Lubashi-gha narz dubi, dalab gav-khu, ganashanûk
  2. Guzhubadashanûk, ishashanûk
    Gilgamish-gha narz dubi, dalab gav-khu, ganashanûk
    Guzhubadashanûk, ishashanûk
  3. Fushashanûk ruk kând Bârad-khu
  4. Khutashanûk gûludûk shû-khu
  5. Ganashan dhûri, badzashan buzhi
  6. Ruzhashan zhabazhi zhûsh-ikhu shub-ishibû bâradbâ-iza

* * *

  1. He who saw the depth, the foundation of the Earth
  2. He experienced all, understood all
    Gilgamesh who saw the depth, the foundation of the Earth
    He experienced all, understood all
  3. He explored the four corners of the world
  4. He got the full knowledge of everything (that existed)
  5. He beheld the secret, reveled the hidden.
  6. He preserved the history of time before the Flood for the posterity

 

Word list

BS =The Black Speech (original Tolkien word)
der. = derived word
Etym = Etymologies (in The Los Road)
HORN = HorngothLoS =The Land of Shadow
MERP = Middle Earth Role Play
PE = Primitive Elvish
Sv = Svartiska

Zhâburi English Source Source word
after PE epe
bad(a)z open; reveal LoS badz
bârad world Etym MBAR
bâradbâ posterity der. bârad + bâ
before PE opo
buzh hidden Etym MUY
dakht angle PE nekte
dalab foundation PE talmā
dhûr secret HORN dhûr
dub deep Etym TUB
fush explore Sv fushat
gan see; behold Etym KEN
gav earth Etym KEM
gûlud knowledge BS + der. suffix gûl+Vd
guzh live Etym KUY
guzhubad experience der. guzh+(u)bad
ish understand PE is
kând corner Sv kând
khut get PE khot
narz that; who Sv narz
rag about; on Sv rag
ruzh preserve MERP ruj
shub flood PE sovo
skug shallow Sv skugga
zhabazh story; account der. zhab+azh (mirror suffix)
zhûsh period of time; a point in time der. zhû+ûsh

 

What’s going on

I’m working on several things that are relevant for this site at the moment but none is near to be finished so it will probably take a while before anything new is published.

  1. New numbers based on Hurrian instead of Svartiska.
  2. A summary of the Land of Shadow-dialect (LoS) of Neo-black speech. It was more difficult than I thought. Both because LoS is much more developed and complex than Svartiska (and of course I already know the Svartiska grammar) but also because the description of LoS is quite difficult to overview, hence my need for a summary. I see it as an opportunity to learn LoS-grammar and be inspired for my own dialect.
  3. A comparison of Svartiska and LoS based on the Black Speech School version of LoS.
  4. An English wordlist for Zhâburi A.
  5. The development of Zhâburi follows two/several lines: first I’m trying out the grammar with a lot of test sentences; and this means that I need words for my grammar testing so I at the same time I’ve coined new words from Primitive Elvish (PE) and Etymologies. But this is a really slow process so I’m thinking of using Svartiska and LoS words for my grammar testing and move more slowly in the word creation process. Which leads to the next:
  6. I have always imagined that the Black Speech is mostly based on an orcish Language that developed from some kind of PE (See this page). So my idea is to develop a base vocabulary for Zhâburi B directly from PE. I’m now returning  to my old idea of first develop, or really just sketch, this primitive Orcish – or Angband orcish – because I imagine that the orcs under Morgoth were united but scattered after the War of Wrath.
  7. Of course I also need to update several pages because of the changes of the pronouns.

New analysis of uruk, olog & oghor

This is an analysis I have thought about for quite a while now. This text also appear in V. Analysis of the Black Speech.

The words uruk, olog and oghor are all attested with the ending –hai. The word uruk means “orc”, oghor-hai are the drúedain or the Wood people – could be Black Speech but more probably Orcish. Olog is pure Black Speech and seems to mean “troll“.

The interoperation of these words seem to be quite straight forward but I have an idea for a deeper and more constructive analysis. These words are a bit odd. Most attested Black Speech words are monosyllabic except from compounds and words with suffixes. And there are only a few words with initial vowel – except these three only ash (one), agh (and) the monosyllabic preposition u from the orc curse and a few names: Azog, Orcobal, Othrod, Ufthak and Uglúk.

In Hurrian (and other ancient languages such as proto-indoeuropean) words can be derived by duplication of syllables or vowels. So my proposition is that these are derived words with a prefix that duplicates the stem vowel. This analysis gives us three new stems and a new rule for deriving new words. The rule is that words for races can be derived from stems by dublicate the stam vowel and attach it in front of the stem. The only problem here is that I had a vision that Zhâburi B should only use suffixes (a rule inspired from Hurrian). The stems are: RUK, LOG– and GHOR-.

The first of these is actually attested in Primitive Elvish. H. K. Fauskanger writes: “ruk- one of the “ancient forms” of the stem RUKU, that yielded the word Orch (Orc) in Sindarin. Other forms include rauk-, uruk-, urk(u), runk-, rukut/s; also the “strengthened stem”gruk- and the “elaborated” guruk-, ñguruk (the latter by combination with a distinct stem NGUR “horror”, WJ:415). None of these derivatives are clearly glossed, though urku (or uruku) is said to have yielded Quenya urko, vague in meaning in the lore of the Blessed Realm (“bogey”), but later recognized as a cognate of Sindarin Orch. The adjective urkâ is said to mean “horrible”(WJ:389-90).” In Elvish this stem has something to do with fear which it does not have to have in Zhâburi. I have not decided what the RUK-stem meaning should be.

The stem GHOR could something to do with with trees, wood and forest so oghor would be the “forest person” and oghor-hai “those of the wood men” ore something like that. Or more probably it comes from the druedains own word for themselves, drughu.

The Trolls were the Shadows answer to Ents and made of stone so LOG could very well have to do with stone or rock.

New pronouns

I have som new inspiration and currently I working on pronouns based on Hurrian. I’m also working on a wordlist and I have plans for a page with all the published grammar.

The Ring Verse in The Land of Shadow Dialect

The most widespread dialect or or version of a Black Speech of Mordor that of The Land of Shadow (LoS) and it is interesting to compare it to Zhâburi and Svartiska dialects. Svartiska is the version that I started with and Zhâburi started as an attempt to make Svartiska more coherent to the Black Speech of the Ring Inscription.

Because the central, and really only, example of true Black Speech sentences are those of the ring inscription I will use them as my comparision example. When I first found out about LoS I looked for a translation of the whole ring verse but I could only find the first to lines.

Gakh Nazgu Golug-durub-uru lata-nut.
Three Rings Elf-lords-for under-sky
Three Rings for the Elven-kings under the sky

Udu Gazat-shakh-uru ulub ruz-ishiz gund-ob.
Seven Dwarf-lords-for their halls-in stone of
Seven for the Dwarf-lords in their halls of stone

These two lines are a bit perplexing because they do not follow the grammar as it is explained on the Black Speech School site. Both the dative postpositional endings have lost their circumflexes –uru instead of –ûru. (These are plural, the singular is, just as in Svartiska –ûr. The Svartiska plural is instead -ûri.) And in the first line the postposition –lata (under) has become a preposition preceding the noun nût (sky), (which has lost its circumflex). This is explicitly described as Debased Black Speech. And it’s strange that the word for ‘hall’ ru has a double plural marker, both a suffix attached to the word itself and a plural marker in the postposition –ishiz. These lines are LoS-black Speech and not genuine Tolkien sentences and should not be considered as authentic. But we can make a simple rule of this example of double plural: if the noun ends in a vowel the noun takes a double plural marker in both the noun and the postposition. A more complicated rule would be that a noun ending in a vowel takes the double plural marker only if the postposition starts with a vowel. Both are consistent with the  case of “in the halls” and the noun ru (hall) and innessive postposition (in) –ishi, e.g. ru-ishi “in a/the hall” ruz-ishiz “in [the] halls”.   

So I have reconstructed both lines and the rest of the Ring Verse.

1. Gakh nazgu golug-durub-ûru nût-lata
Three rings [the] elf-lords-for [the] sky-under
Three Rings for the Elven-kings under the sky,

2. Udu gazat-shakh-ûru ulub ruz-ishiz gund-ob
Seven [the] dwarf-lords-for their halls-in stone-of
Seven for the Dwarf-lords in their halls of stone,

3. Krith tark-ûru matûrzu dûmpuga matat
Nine men-for mortal doomed to-die
Nine for Mortal Men doomed to die

4. Ash goth-bûrz-ûr tab ulîma-ir
One [the] lord-dark-for his throne-on
One for the Dark Lord on his dark throne

In this line I chose to use the word goth for lord instead of shakh to avoid repetition.

5a. Uzg-ishi Mordor-ob amal burgûlu kulut
[the] Land-in Mordor-of where shadows are
In the Land of Mordor where the Shadows lie

5b. Uzgbûrz-ishi amal burgûlu kulut
In [the] Dark-land [Mordor] where shadows are
In the Land of Mordor where the Shadows lie

In the last word of the fifth line I had to find another word than ‘to lie’ because I could not find it. So I used the word for are kul– which is the regular form of “to be” in third person plural present tense. [Update 17.04.18. There is a word for “to lie” kât- (from Quenya caita-) which I know that I’ve seen before. So line 5b: Uzgbûrz-ishi amal burgûlu kâtut.]

There is also the problem of whether to translate Mordor or not. In 5a Mordor is not translated and the translation follows the original. In version 5b Mordor is translated into Uzgbûrz “The Dark Land” following the form of Lugbúrz “The Dark Tower”. The 5b is shorter and have the same amount of syllables and I think it’s more appropriate not to use Elvish words. Mordor ought to have its own name in its own language. So I have used 5b below.  

6. Ash Nazg Durbatulûk
One Ring to-Rule-them-all

7. Ash Nazg Gimbatul
One Ring to-Find-them

8. Ash Nazg Thrakatulûk
One Ring to-Bring-them-all

agh burzum-ishi krimpatul
and [the] Darkness-in Bind-them

My version of the Ring Verse in the LoS dialect of the Black Speech of Mordor

  1. Gakh nazgu golug-durub-ûru nût-lata
  2. Udu gazat-shakh-ûru ulub ru-ishiz gund-ob
  3. Krith tark-ûru matûrzu dûmpuga matat
  4. Ash goth-burz-ûr tab ulîma-ir
  5. Uzgbûrz-ishi amal burgûlu kulut
  1. Ash Nazg Durbatulûk
  2. Ash Nazg Gimbatul
  3. Ash Nazg Thrakatulûk
  4. agh burzum-ishi krimpatul
  5. Uzgbûrz-ishi amal burgûlukulut

 

 

The Ring verse updated

The Ring verse had to be updated. When writing about the Descriptive I changed it so it agrees with the word it describes. When it agrees with nouns it is subject to suffixaufnahme. In the third line (nine for mortal men doomed to die) the descriptive ‘fundadash’ (doomed/judged) agrees with the directive of ‘tarkgoth-za’ (to the lords of men)  suffixaufnahme –diza have to be added. Because of the additional syllables the sentence need to be shortened so ‘goth’ (lord) of ‘tarkgoth’ had to be deleted.

In addition I have started to develop the vocabulary, bringing it closer to Primitive Elvish (PE). This has given me new words for ‘die’ from the PE word ‘ñgurū’ (death) which becomes ‘gûr’ in Zhâburi B. The intransitive of this is ‘gûru-‘.

The third line is thus changed from Krith fundadash maum tarkgoth-za to Krith fundadash-diza gûrum tark-za.

The word for ‘stone’ has been changed from ‘gund’ (Svartiska) to gûd (Primitive Elvish gondo) following the same peinciples as ‘ñgurū’ to ‘gûr’. Interestingly the Svartiska word for stone is quite similar to the PE ‘gondo’ and is probably inspired by Sindarin ‘gond’. The word ‘gund’ for stone can also be found in the orcish dialects Land of Shadows, Horngoth and MERP. In Svartiska and MERP another word for ‘stone’ is – gur.

Some thoughts

I’m thinking that I maybe the verb’s potential optative ending -gh ought to be changes to -k so it closer corresponds to the conditional particle ak of zhâburi A.

I’m working on a description of the noun but of course my creativity is too great and I have started to questioning my old ideas of the case system. Both the number of cases and the actual endings. The old idea is that there ought to be quite few (oh well six) cases and that the endings are inspired by elvish. Now I’m starting to entertain the idea of more cases (maybe 13) which is closer to the number of cases in Hurrian. I’m also thinking that it is more appropriate to take inspiration from Hurrian for the endings.

When writing this I realize that I’m still leaning to the old system but I think that if the endings ought to resemble Elvish case endings I need a “constructive” analysis of the sound changes from Primitive Elvish to Quenya so that I can use the Quenya material to backtrack the hypothetical endings/postpositions of PE.

Star Trek – to boldly go…

In the Facebook-group ConLang there was a request of a translation in one’s conlang of the Star Trek theme:

Space. The final frontier. These are the voyages of the starship Enterprise. It’s continuing mission – to explore strange, new worlds; to seek out new life, and new civilizations; to boldly go where no one has gone before!

Here is the sentence i Zhâburi:

Zhâtur. Bit dâki. Tak bînuri îlbalag-iba Intirprâz. Sûb vraudugar durak – fushatar mâgh narg, rau abak; gimbatar rau gazh agh rau gazhâb; gan batutar potza azgon batushikh! 

It was an interesting challenge because I had to invent most of the words. I have tired to use words from genuine Tolkien-languages instead of words from Svartiska or LoS.

Space-ABS. Final border-the-ABS. These travels-the starship-the-of Enterprise. It’s going-ITERATIVE [continuing] order – intention-to-explore-ITERATIVE many strange, new worlds-ABS; intention-to-find-ITERATIVE new life-ABS and new societies-ABS; boldly intention-to-travel-ITERATIVE where-to-DIR no-one-ABS traveled-NEGATIVE!

Q=Quenya
PE=Primitive Elvish
Sv=Svartiska
Ad=Adûnaic
BS=Black Speech

Zhâburi English Comment
zhâtur space Q láta “open” > zhât + -ur > zhâtur “space”
dâk border PE taika “n. boundary, limit, boundary line”> dâk
bit final Q metta “final end” > bit
bînur voyage, travel PE mēn “n. a way, a going, a mov[ement]” > bît + ur “bîtur”
îlbalag starship PE êl “star” > îl; Ad balak “ship” > balag
durak order BS durb- “to rule”, root dur + -ak > durak
fush- explore Sv fush- “to explore; discover; detect”
mâgh many numerus particle
narg strange Sv nargil “strange, odd, weird”
aban world Ad aban “world”
gimbatar with the intention to repeatedly find BS gimb- “find”
rau new Sv rau “new”
gazh life Sv gajum “life” > gazh
agh and BS
gazhâb society gazh “life” + PE prefix wâ- “together” > postfix -âb
gan bold(ly) Q canya (KAN) > gan
batutar with the intention to travel continously Ad bat- “to walk” > bat- “travel”
potza wher-to
azgon nowhere
batushikh not went/has not gone bat-

An interesting result of this exercise was that I realised that the jussive iterative of transitive verbs is constituted of the suffix-complex -atar which is very similar to the Svartiska and Zhâburi A agent suffix -atâr. So ushatâr “warrior”; ushatar “with the intention to repeatedly fight”